Endometriosis is a condition where there is abnormal growth of endometrial cells outside the uterus. It is mostly found in the pelvic area and rarely in areas remote to the pelvis.
The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown. It affects women in their reproductive years and seldom in their post-menopausal years or teens. It is believed the backing up of menstrual flow into unusual places causes' endometriosis. You can also navigate online to know more about the causes of endometriosis.
The symptoms are usually undetected. It results in pelvic pain and infertility. A patient may experience pain while passing urine or bowel movement. Other symptoms related to endometriosis include lower abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation, low back pain, irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding, or blood in the urine.
The doctor can diagnose it during physical examination. While examining the doctor may feel some nodules near the uterus. Or they can be detected in ultrasound. The most foolproof method of diagnosis is laparoscopy, which offers a clear view of the uterine cavity and other organs.
Endometriosis can be treated with both medication and surgery. Medication is given to relieve pain and inflammation. Also Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRH analogs) are given to reduce the size of endometriosis. However, they have many side effects.
Giving birth control pills also cures it. It can be cured using different kinds of medication and drugs like progestins, danzole, aromatose inhibitors etc. but most have side effects.